How to Build a Stone Garden Pond: A Step-by-Step Guide

A stone garden pond can be a beautiful addition to any outdoor space, providing a calming and tranquil oasis for both people and wildlife.

Building a stone garden pond is a rewarding project that can enhance the aesthetics and overall enjoyment of your garden.

However, it’s important to take the time to carefully plan and prepare before starting this project.

By following the steps and guidelines in this guide, you can create a beautiful and peaceful garden oasis that you’ll be proud to show off to your friends and family.

Throughout this guide, we’ll provide you with all the information you need to build a stone garden pond.

This includes what materials and tools you’ll need, how to choose the right location and size for your pond, and how to properly maintain it once it’s built.

Whether you’re a seasoned DIY enthusiast or a beginner looking to take on a new challenge, building a stone garden pond is a project that you can tackle with the right guidance and preparation.

Image Credit: © Copyright Stanley Howe

Planning Your Stone Garden Pond

Choose A Location For The Pond

Choosing the right location for your stone garden pond is essential to its overall success and longevity.

When selecting a location, here are a number of factors that you will need to consider:

  1. Sunlight: Your pond should receive at least six hours of sunlight per day to support healthy plant growth and maintain the water temperature. However, too much sunlight can lead to algae growth and overheating.
  2. Proximity to trees: Falling leaves and branches can clog your pond and create maintenance issues. Avoid placing your pond under trees, especially deciduous trees that shed their leaves.
  3. Proximity to power: You’ll need a power source to operate a pond pump and filtration system. Consider the location of nearby electrical outlets or whether you’ll need to install underground wiring.
  4. Drainage: Choose a location that has good drainage to prevent water from pooling around the pond. Avoid low-lying areas that are prone to flooding.
  5. Aesthetics: Consider how the pond will look in the overall design of your garden. Choose a location that complements the existing landscape and is visible from a comfortable seating area.

By taking these factors into consideration, you can choose a location that will ensure the success and enjoyment of your stone garden pond.

The Size And Shape Of The Pond

After you’ve picked the ideal location, the next step is to measure the area and determine the shape and depth of the pond.

Below are some tips to help you with these tasks:

  1. Measure the area: Measure the area using a tape measure to determine the length and width of the pond. Measure the widest points of the area and add 1-2 feet extra for the pond edging stones. This will allow you to calculate how much material you will need for the project.
  2. Shape of the pond: Next, consider the shape of the pond that you want to build. The shape should match the overall design of your garden. Circular, oval, kidney-shaped, and rectangular are some of the most popular shapes for garden ponds. You can mark out the perimeter of the pond using spray paint or a garden hose.
  3. Depth of the pond: Finally, you need to decide on the depth of your pond. The depth of your pond depends on your intended use for the pond. If you plan to have fish in your pond, it should be at least 3 feet deep. If you want a purely decorative pond, a depth of 1-2 feet is sufficient. Remember that deeper ponds require more excavation and may require additional materials, such as a pond liner.

By taking the time to carefully measure the area, choose the right shape and depth for your stone garden pond, and planning accordingly, you can create a beautiful and functional water feature that will enhance the aesthetics and overall enjoyment of your garden.

Choose Pond Edging Stones

Selecting the proper edging stones for your stone garden pond is a crucial aspect for both functionality and appearance.

Edging stones act as a barrier for the pond liner, preventing soil and debris from entering the pond and keeping everything tidy.

Here are a number of options that you can use.

Slate Chippings

One frequently used option for pond edging is slate chippings, and for good reasons:

  1. Appearance: Slate chippings have a natural and rustic look that enhances the appearance of a stone garden pond. The various hues of grey, blue, and green present in the slate add dimension and texture to the pond’s border.
  2. Functionality: Slate chippings are simple to handle and can be arranged in any desired pattern or design. They also provide a stable and level walking surface around the pond.
  3. Durability: Slate chippings are long-lasting and can endure exposure to water and weather conditions without losing their integrity or colour.

Take a look at our online shop here on TW Aggregates where you can view or Blue Slate, Plum Slate, and Grey Slate Chippings.

Gravel & Aggregates

Another option for edging stones around your stone garden pond is gravel and aggregates.

Gravel and aggregates come in many different colours, sizes, and textures, which makes them a versatile choice for pond edging.

Here are some reasons why gravel and aggregates might be the ideal choice for your pond:

  1. Versatility: Gravel and aggregates come in various sizes and colours, allowing you to choose a style that matches the general aesthetic of your garden. They can be arranged in any pattern or design and are ideal for creating a natural-looking pond edge.
  2. Cost-effective: Gravel and aggregates are often less expensive than other types of edging stones, making them an economical choice for creating a beautiful and functional stone garden pond.
  3. Low maintenance: Gravel and aggregates require minimal maintenance and can be easily cleaned by hosing them down or using a pond vacuum. They are also resistant to algae growth, making them a practical choice for a low-maintenance pond.

When choosing gravel and aggregates for your pond edging, keep in mind the size and texture of the stones.

Larger stones can provide a more dramatic appearance, while smaller stones can create a more natural-looking border.

It’s important to select stones that are appropriate for the size and depth of your pond.

Cobbles & Pebbles

Cobbles and pebbles are another popular option for edging stones around a stone garden pond.

They come in various colours and sizes and can be used to create a natural-looking pond edge.

Let’s take a look at the reasons why cobbles and pebbles are a popular choice when it comes to garden ponds:

  1. Natural Appearance: If you are looking for a natural and organic look for the edge of your pond, then cobbles and pebbles might be the perfect choice for you. These stones can give your pond a natural appearance, blending in seamlessly with the surrounding garden. They are available in a number of different colours such as neutral tones like beige, cream, and grey. If you prefer a brighter colour then you can choose red, blue or green.
  2. Easy to work with: Having a material that is easy to work with makes life much easier. You can easily arrange cobbles and pebbles into any shape or pattern that you desire. They are also lightweight and easy to move, making it simple to create a customized look for your pond edge.
  3. Durability: Cobbles and pebbles are long-lasting and can withstand exposure to water and weather conditions without deteriorating or fading over time. They are also resistant to the growth of algae, which makes them a practical choice for a low-maintenance pond.

What You’ll Need


Before you start building your stone garden pond, it’s important to make sure you have all the necessary equipment and tools.

Here is a list tools and equipment you’ll need to get started:

  1. Shovel: You’ll need a sturdy shovel to dig out the area where you’ll be placing your pond.
  2. Level: A level is important to ensure that the bottom of the pond is even and level.
  3. Tape measure: You’ll need a tape measure to measure the area where you’ll be placing the pond and to determine the size of the liner or preformed pond you’ll need.
  4. Garden hose: A garden hose is necessary to fill the pond with water and test for leaks.
  5. Wheelbarrow: You’ll need a wheelbarrow to move stones, gravel, and other materials around your garden.
  6. Rubber mallet: A rubber mallet will come in handy for tapping stones into place.
  7. Pond liner or preformed pond: You’ll need a pond liner or preformed pond to hold the water in your pond.
  8. Pump and filter system: A pump and filter system will help keep the water in your pond clean and clear.

By having all the necessary equipment and tools on hand, you’ll be able to build your stone garden pond efficiently and effectively.

Make sure to take the time to gather everything you need before you begin, and don’t hesitate to consult with a professional if you have any questions or concerns.


In addition to the necessary tools and equipment, there are several materials you’ll need to successfully build your stone garden pond.

Here are some of the basic materials you’ll need to get started:

  1. Sand: Sand is important for creating a level base for your pond liner or preformed pond.
  2. Underlay: An underlay is a protective layer that goes between the pond liner or preformed pond and the ground to prevent damage to the liner.
  3. Pond liner or preformed pond: A pond liner or preformed pond is necessary to hold the water in your pond.
  4. Gravel: Gravel can be used to line the bottom of your pond and create a natural-looking habitat for aquatic plants and wildlife.
  5. Decorative stones: Decorative stones can be used to line the bottom of your pond and create a visually appealing environment.
  6. Edging stones: Edging stones are necessary to create a decorative border around your pond.
  7. Pump and filter system: A pump and filter system will help keep the water in your pond clean and clear.
  8. Plants and wildlife: Adding aquatic plants and wildlife to your pond can help create a natural ecosystem and improve water quality.

Make sure to choose only high-quality materials that are suitable for your specific needs.

Here at TW Aggregates, we supply a whole range of building and landscaping materials that are perfect for both small and large projects.

How to Build a Stone Garden Pond

Mark out the area for your stone pond

Okay, so you’ve made the big decision to construct a stunning stone garden pond and have already picked out the ideal location, shape, and size.

The subsequent step involves marking out the precise area where you’ll be building your pond. Ready? Here’s what you need to do:

  1. Stakes and strings: Firstly, you’re going to require some stakes and string. Stick a stake in the ground at the exact centre of the pond, then attach a piece of string to the stake and use it to outline the shape of the pond.
  2. Spray paint/Marking paint: To make it easier to see the perimeter of the pond, you can spray paint or marking paint on the ground to mark it out.
    Before you start digging, check your measurements twice and make any essential adjustments. This will guarantee that your pond is the appropriate size and shape.
  3. Size of hole: If you’re thinking of installing a preformed pond, ensure that you dig a hole that corresponds to the correct size and shape of the pond. If you’re using a pond liner, add an extra foot of space surrounding the pond to accommodate the edging stones.

By taking the time to properly mark out the area for your stone garden pond, you’ll be able to construct a pond that blends in perfectly with your garden and elevates its overall beauty.

Additionally, this will help you evade costly blunders or the need to redo any work in the future. So take it slow and get it done right!

Dig The Area

Once the area has been marked, you can now begin the digging process. Here’s how to do it:

  1. You need to get a spade or a shovel and start digging out the marked perimeter of your pond, beginning from the centre and working your way outwards.
  2. As you dig, make sure to maintain a consistent depth that aligns with your pond’s specifications, and keep the edges of the hole as straight and even as possible. Check for levelness using a level.
  3. Clear out any debris like rocks and roots that may get in your way as you dig, and dispose of it properly.
  4. Once you’re done, give the hole a good hosing to remove any leftover debris and dirt. This will make it easier for you to install your preformed pond or pond liner.

Taking the time to properly dig out the area for your stone garden pond will ensure that the pond fits your needs, both in size and depth. Plus, it’ll help keep the pond stable and prevent any shifting or settling over time.

Install A Liner

Now that you’ve dug out the area for your pond, it’s time to install your liner or preformed pond. Here’s how to do it:

  1. If you’re using a pond liner, lay it out over the hole, making sure to leave a generous amount of excess liner around the edges of the hole.
  2. Use heavy rocks or bricks to weigh down the edges of the liner and hold it in place. Be sure to smooth out any wrinkles or folds in the liner to prevent leaks.
  3. If you’re using a preformed pond, place it carefully into the hole and make sure it’s level.
  4. Fill the pond with water, making sure to smooth out any wrinkles or folds in the liner as it fills. If you’re using a preformed pond, make sure it’s level and adjust as necessary.
  5. Once the pond is full, trim any excess liner away from the edges of the hole using a pair of scissors.

By installing a liner or preformed pond, you’ll ensure that your stone garden pond holds water and stays leak-free. Plus, it will give your pond a more finished, professional look.

Place Your Decorative Stones Around The Pond Edge

Now that your pond is in place, it’s time to add the finishing touches by placing decorative stones around the edge:

  1. Choose the type of stones you want to use. Slate chippings, gravel and aggregates, and cobbles and pebbles are all popular choices for pond edging.
  2. Begin by placing the larger stones around the edge of the pond, using them to create a natural-looking border. Be sure to choose stones that are roughly the same size and shape for a uniform look.
  3. Fill in the gaps between the larger stones with smaller ones, using them to create a more natural-looking transition between the pond and the surrounding landscape.
  4. Step back and assess your work, making any necessary adjustments to the placement of the stones.
  5. Finally, add a layer of mulch or soil around the edge of the pond to help blend the stones into the surrounding landscape.

By placing decorative stones around the edge of your pond, you’ll not only add to its aesthetic appeal, but also help to prevent erosion and protect the pond liner or preformed pond.

Add Water To Your Pond

Add Water And Test For Leaks

It’s time to add some water to your stone garden pond now that the decorative stones have been put in place. Here’s a step-by-step guide to help you fill your pond:

  1. To begin, slowly fill your pond with water using a garden hose or other source of water. Take care not to fill it too quickly, as this could cause the liner or preformed pond to shift.
  2. Once the pond is full, let it sit undisturbed for several days to allow the water to settle and any debris or sediment to sink to the bottom.
  3. After a few days, check the water level and top it up if necessary. This is also a good time to inspect the pond for any leaks.
  4. To test for leaks, turn off the pump and filter system and let the water sit for 24 hours. If the water level drops significantly, you likely have a leak that needs to be repaired.
  5. To locate the leak, carefully examine the pond and the liner or preformed pond for any indications of damage, such as punctures, tears, or holes. If you discover any damage, repair it using a patch kit designed specifically for pond liners or preformed ponds.

By adding water to your stone garden pond and performing regular maintenance, you’ll ensure that it remains functional and is ready for your plants and wildlife to move in.

Install A Pump And Filter System

Installing a pump and filter system is crucial to maintain the cleanliness and health of your garden pond. Follow these steps to set up the system:

  1. Select a pump and filter system suitable for your pond’s size. Look for one that can circulate the water in the pond at least once every two hours.
  2. Install the pump at the deepest point of the pond, following the manufacturer’s instructions, and secure it tightly to prevent any movement.
  3. Connect the filter to the pump and position it at the edge of the pond. Ensure that the tubing and fittings are firmly connected.
  4. Test the system by turning on the pump and checking that the water is flowing through the filter and back into the pond.
  5. Adjust the flow rate of the pump and filter system as needed to ensure optimal water circulation and efficient debris removal.

By setting up a reliable pump and filter system, you’ll help keep your garden pond clean and healthy for the benefit of plants and wildlife.

Add Plants And Wildlife

A garden pond is not complete without some plants and wildlife to enhance its beauty and provide a habitat for aquatic creatures. Here are some steps to follow when adding plants and wildlife to your pond:

  1. Choose plants that are suitable for a garden pond. Aquatic plants such as water lilies, lotus, and water hyacinths are popular choices. Floating plants like duckweed and water lettuce can also be added.
  2. Plant your chosen aquatic plants in appropriate containers and place them in the pond. Make sure to follow the instructions on planting depth and spacing to ensure that they grow properly.
  3. Introduce fish to your pond, but be careful not to overstock them. The number of fish you can add will depend on the size of your pond. Koi and goldfish are popular choices.
  4. Attract other wildlife to your pond by providing shelter and food. You can add rocks, logs, and plants to provide shelter for insects, amphibians, and other creatures. You can also add a bird feeder nearby to attract birds.
  5. Monitor the health of your pond and its inhabitants regularly. Look out for any signs of disease or imbalance in the ecosystem, and take appropriate action if needed.

By adding plants and wildlife to your pond, you’ll create a vibrant ecosystem that will enhance the beauty of your garden and provide a habitat for a variety of aquatic creatures.

Garden Pond Maintenance

Taking care of a garden pond is vital to ensure that it stays beautiful and healthy for both plants and wildlife. Consistent maintenance can prevent algae growth, improve water quality, and prevent any potential problems from occurring. Here are some maintenance tasks that you should keep in mind:

  1. Remove debris: Make sure to eliminate any debris that may have collected in the pond, such as leaves, branches, and other organic matter.
  2. Check water levels: Verify that the water level is consistent and that there are no leaks in the pond. If you notice a significant decrease in water level, there might be a leak or evaporation, and you need to address it right away.
  3. Test water quality: Regularly test the water to ensure that the pH, ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite levels are within the recommended range. Add suitable chemicals if required.
  4. Prune plants: Cut off any dead or dying leaves from plants to prevent decay and algae growth.
  5. Maintain pump and filter: Keep a check on the pump and filter to ensure they are functioning properly. Clean the filter as needed and replace it if it’s too old or damaged.
  6. Control algae growth: Prevent excessive algae growth by adding an appropriate amount of algae treatments and reducing the amount of direct sunlight that the pond receives.

By performing these maintenance tasks regularly, you can maintain your garden pond’s health and beauty, making it a pleasant and peaceful retreat for all.

Frequently Asked Questions

How deep should gravel be for a pond?

Determining the appropriate depth of gravel for a pond is dependent on various factors, including the pond’s design and intended purpose.

For instance, if you desire a pond with a waterfall or stream, you’ll need a thicker layer of gravel to facilitate water flow and filtration.

As a general guideline, a layer of gravel measuring 2 to 3 inches deep should suffice.

This depth provides ample drainage and filtration, without being too deep to make cleaning and upkeep difficult.

When planning to keep fish in your pond, it’s crucial to consider their specific needs. Fish require oxygen-rich water, so using too much gravel can impede water circulation.

A layer of gravel measuring 1 to 2 inches deep is usually adequate for fish ponds.

Regular cleaning and maintenance of the gravel is also essential to prevent debris and waste build-up that can be harmful to fish and other pond life.

Ultimately, the depth of gravel that’s suitable for your pond will depend on various factors, including the size and design of the pond, the presence of fish or other wildlife, and personal preferences.

Proper research and planning will help ensure the creation of a healthy and functional pond ecosystem.

What is the best stone for a pond?

When designing a garden pond, it’s important to choose the right type of stone for both aesthetic and functional purposes.

However, with so many options available, it can be difficult to determine the best stone for your pond. To make the right choice, there are several factors to consider.

Firstly, the stone should be non-toxic and not release any harmful chemicals into the water, as this can be detrimental to the health of the pond and its inhabitants.

Additionally, the size and texture of the stone are important factors to keep in mind. Large, flat stones can be used to create ledges around the pond for plants and wildlife, while smaller stones can be used to create a more natural-looking edge. Rough or jagged stones should be avoided, as they can cause harm to fish and other aquatic life.

Some of the most popular types of stone for garden ponds include limestone, sandstone, granite, and slate. Limestone is a great choice for its natural look and durability, while sandstone can be used to create a more textured and rugged appearance. Granite is a hard and durable stone that can be polished to a smooth finish, while slate is known for its dark, rich color and smooth texture.

In the end, the best stone for your pond will depend on your personal preferences and the size and style of your pond. It’s important to choose a stone that is safe for aquatic life and complements the overall aesthetic of your garden.

What do you put in the bottom of a garden pond?

When creating a garden pond, it’s crucial to take the necessary steps to ensure its bottom is protected.

This involves lining it with a material such as rubber or PVC to prevent any seepage into the surrounding ground.

It’s advisable to place a layer of sand or underlay beneath the liner to cushion it and protect it from any sharp objects that may pierce it.

Once the protective layer is in place, a layer of substrate can be added to the bottom of the pond.

The substrate serves as a surface for beneficial bacteria to grow and helps to support aquatic plants.

Common substrates include sand, pea gravel, and aquatic soil.

It’s important to choose a substrate that’s appropriate for the type of plants and fish you plan to have in your pond.

For instance, if you intend to have plants such as water lilies, which root into the substrate, it’s best to use a heavier substrate like aquatic soil.

Conversely, if you plan to keep fish that enjoy rooting around in the substrate, a lighter substrate such as pea gravel may be more suitable.

Can you use Cotswold stone in a pond?

Many people like to use Cotswold stone for garden ponds, but it’s essential to be careful because not all Cotswold stone is suitable for use in a pond.

Some types of Cotswold stone may contain high levels of calcium, which can cause the pH level of the water to become too alkaline, harming aquatic life that prefers neutral or slightly acidic water.

Before using Cotswold stone in a pond, it is essential to test it for calcium content.

This can be done through a vinegar test, which involves placing a small piece of the stone in a container with vinegar and observing any reaction.

If there is any bubbling or fizzing, it indicates the presence of calcium carbonate, and the stone may not be suitable for use in a pond.

If you do decide to use Cotswold stone in your pond, make sure to regularly check the pH level of the water and adjust it if necessary to create a healthy environment for your fish and plants.

Which types of pond stones are fish friendly?

When it comes to selecting stones for your garden pond, it’s important to choose ones that are safe for any fish or other wildlife that might live in the pond.

The stones should have smooth edges and surfaces, as rough or jagged ones can cause harm to the delicate fins of fish.

To create a fish-friendly pond, consider using smooth river rocks, rounded beach pebbles, or polished black stones.

However, it’s best to avoid using limestone or any other stone that might disrupt the pH balance of the water or release harmful chemicals.

Before placing the stones in the pond, be sure to rinse them thoroughly to remove any dirt, debris, or contaminants that may be present.

By carefully selecting fish-friendly stones, you can create a safe and beautiful environment for all of your aquatic inhabitants.

How to Build a Stone Garden Pond Conclusion

Creating a stone garden pond can be a rewarding project that adds value and beauty to your outdoor space.

If you’re looking to build your own stone garden pond, there are several important factors to consider to ensure its success.

Firstly, carefully select the location for your pond.

Choose an area that is level and receives the appropriate amount of sunlight and shade for the plants and fish you plan to have in the pond.

Be sure to measure the area to determine the appropriate size and shape for your space.

Next, consider the type of edging stones you want to use.

This can add a unique and appealing touch to your pond’s design.

Choose stones that complement the overall aesthetic of your garden and that are suitable for aquatic environments.

Before starting the installation, ensure that you have all the necessary tools and materials on hand.

Follow the installation instructions closely to ensure that your pond is installed properly and efficiently.

This will help to prevent any future issues or complications.

Finally, it’s important to perform regular maintenance on your pond to keep it clean and healthy.

This includes removing any debris, performing water tests, and making necessary adjustments to the water chemistry.

By following these tips, you can create a stunning and functional stone garden pond that will bring joy for years to come.

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